Osteonecrosis (ON) is a disease that affects the bone and leads to the breakdown of the bone. Literally, the term means death of bone (osteo = bone, necrosis = death).
The disease affects the hip, knee and ankle joints. However, osteonecrosis of the hip accounts for more than 90 percent of all osteonecrosis cases.
Approximately 10,000 to 20,000 people develop osteonecrosis in the U.S. This disease primarily develops in people between the ages of 20 and 40. The average age is 38. If you are healthy, your chances of developing osteonecrosis are quite small.Children and teenagers can develop a form of osteonecrosis called Legg-Calve-Perth's disease. The top or head of the femur (thighbone) loses circulation and the bone cells die. The bone becomes soft and liable to collapse under pressure. After a period of time, the head of the femur will heal in the collapsed position leading to stiffness and pain.
Causes of Osteonecrosis Symptoms
There are two primary forms of osteonecrosis: post-traumatic and non-traumatic. A minor injury will not cause ON and even most major traumas do not result in the disease. Fractures where the blood vessels to a section of the bone are damaged have a chance of resulting in ON.
Non-traumatic osteonecrosis is associated with other diseases such as lupus, kidney and liver disease, sickle-cell disease, gout and clotting disorders. Drinking large amounts of alcohol and receiving high-dosage shots of cortisone can also increase your chances of developing the disease. However, over 30 percent of all people who develop osteonecrosis are otherwise healthy. Doctors do not know why those people develop the condition.
Despite what caused the disease to develop, whether it was due to an injury or an existing condition, the symptoms and course of the disease are similar.
The first symptoms commonly are pain and aching in the affected joint when it is being used. The symptoms will start out slowly but will increase over time. Stiffness and limping becomes common. The pain will be most likely concentrated in the groin area in hip cases.
Unfortunately, by the time most people feel the first symptoms the disease has already progressed. Your doctor will be able to use x-ray to diagnose the disease. The x-ray will be able to show the area of the bone that is involved. In the earliest stages of the disease, however, x- ray will not detect ON. In addition to x-ray, your physician may use a tool called Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to detect ON. MRIs are able to find tissue changes. A CAT scan, which is series of x-rays projected in a three dimensional figure, may also be used to diagnose ON.
Treatments of Osteonecrosis and Osteonecrosis Symptoms
If the disease has progressed without detection for a long period of time, it will be harder to treat and save the joint. Since osteonecrosis of the hip is by the far the most prevalent, the following surgical treatments pertain to hip joints.
Non-surgical treatment options include the use of walkers and crutches. These devices can help manage the pain while at the same time protect the joint until surgery. In addition, the use of walkers and crutches can stop the progression of the disease while other associated medical conditions are treated. However, this is not a long-term solution and surgery is usually recommended. Today, joint replacements are largely successful but when at all possible, your physician will try to save the original hip.
There are several surgical treatment options for osteonecrosis, including:
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